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自考合同法必考名词解释?合同法基本原则名词解释

合同的名词解释

A contract is an exchange of promises between two or more parties to do, or refrain from doing, an act, which resulting contract is enforceable in a court of law. It is a binding legal agreement. [1] That is to say, a contract is an exchange of promises for the breach of which the law will provide a remedy.

Agreement is said to be reached when an offer capable of immediate acceptance is met with a "mirror image" acceptance (ie, an unqualified acceptance). The parties must have the necessary capacity to contract and the contract must not be either trifling, indeterminate, impossible or illegal. Contract law is based on the principle expressed in the Latin phrase pacta sunt servanda (usually translated "pacts must be kept", but more literally "agreements are to be kept").[2] Breach of contract is recognized by the law and remedies can be provided.

Technically, any oral agreement between two parties can constitute a binding legal contract. The practical limitation to this, however, is that only parties to a written agreement have material evidence (the written contract itself) to prove the actual terms uttered at the time the agreement was struck. In daily life, most contracts can be and are made orally, such as purchasing a book or a sandwich. Sometimes written contracts are required by either the parties, or by statutory law within various jurisdiction for certain types of agreement. For example when buying a house[3] or land.

Contract law can be classified, as is habitual in civil law systems, as part of a general law of obligations (along with tort, unjust enrichment or restitution).

According to legal scholar Sir John William Salmond, a contract is "an agreement creating and defining the obligations between two or more parties".

"合同" 在工具书中的解释

1、保险常用名词;又称契约,指当事人之间确定、变更、终止民事法律关系的协议。合同一经订立,当事人双方必须受其约束,任何一方不得擅自变更或解除。

2、亦称“契约”。当事人双方(或数方)关于设定、变更、消灭民事权利义务关系的协议。合同是双方的法律行为,它的成立须双方意思表示的一致,意思表示在先的为要约,意思表示在后的为承诺。合同的订立可以是口头或书面的。有买卖、委托、承揽、租赁等合同。一般只要双方就主要条款(标的、价金、期限以及双方约定必须遵守的其他条款。

3、又称“契约”。法人之间为实现一定的经济目的,明确各方义务和权利等关系的协议性文件。这种协议书一般使用于经济领域,所以也称“经济合同”。它是人们在经济交往中,为了保证信守协定事项而制定的对双方都具有约束力的文件,它是受法律保护的。经当事人协商同意的有关修改“合同”的信件和电报,也属于“合同”的组成部分。

4、当事人之间设立、变更、消灭民事法律关系的协议。它具有三个法律特征:第一,合同是当事人之间自愿协商所达成的协议,是双方法律行为;第二,订立合同的当事人双方在法律上的地位是平等的;第三,合同所确立的关系是民事法律关系。合同本质上是商品经济的产物,是商品交换关系在法律上的表现形式。

5、合同是单位与单位、单位与个人、个人与个人之间,为实现各自的目的,按照法律规定,彼此确定一定权利与义务的协议。合同种类繁多,按照其内容和作用,可以分为购销合同、基本建设合同、加工承揽合同、货物运输合同、供电合同、仓储保管合同、租赁合同、借贷合同、保险合同、科技协作合同、生产责任制合同等数种。

合同法中的“先合同”名词解释是什么???????

先合同,故名思义,指合同订立之前。合同法上并没有“先合同”这内一概念,只有“先合同义容务”一说。指合同订立之前订约双方负有的诚实信用(禁恶意磋商等),以及对获知的商业秘密保密的义务。违反这种先合同义务,将导致承担缔约过失责任。 但愿能有所帮助。

“先合同”,即缔约抄的一个过程,可以认定为从要约生效之时起至合同生效之前的一个过程。 (当承诺的效力是合同成立并生效时,则至承诺送达之前;如果是要签订确认书或者是附条件或附期限的合同,则是至签订确认书之前或条件成就或期限到达之前的一个过程。)

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